Space Program of Mali

------The Malien Space Agency------

Level = 0                                         Development: Very Low

  

Country Overview

What has been going on in Mali?

 

 

Space Agency and its Activity

What kind of space power do they have?

 

 

Weapons and Power Projection

Does Mali have space weapons?

 

 

Timeline and the Future

What are they planning over there?

Population: 13,600,000 / Language: French / GDP: $1000 / Cities: Bamako

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OVERVIEW

 

 

 

 

The landlocked West African country of Mali is one of the world's poorest nations. Since independence from France in 1960 it has suffered droughts, rebellions, a coup and 23 years of military dictatorship.

But since 1992, when the country's first democratically-elected president took power, Mali has had a civilian government.

The core of ancient empires going back to the fourth century, Mali was conquered by the French in the middle of the 19th century. In 1958 it was proclaimed the Sudanese Republic and the following year it became the Mali Federation, after uniting with Senegal. However, Senegal seceded and Mali became independent in 1960.

Although swathes of Mali are barren, the country is self-sufficient in food thanks to the fertile Niger river basin in the south and east.

Mali is one of the continent's biggest cotton producers. Along with other African exporters it has lobbied against subsidies to cotton farmers in richer countries, particularly the US. It argues that these depress prices and restrict Malian farmers' access to export markets.

Mali's economic development is also held back by a chronic foreign trade deficit, making it heavily dependent on foreign aid and the money sent home from emigrants working abroad.

In 1985 Mali fought a brief border war with Burkina Faso, and relations continue to be strained. In the early 1990s the army was sent to the north to quell a rebellion by nomadic Tuareg tribes over land, cultural and linguistic rights. However, Mali remains relatively peaceful.

Mali has produced some of the stars of African music. The Festival in the Desert, held every year in Essakane, a Saharan oasis, celebrates this talent.

Population: The Republic of Mali

President: Amadou Toumani Toure

Amadou Toumani Toure, the army general credited with rescuing Mali from military dictatorship and handing it back to its people, won presidential elections in May 2002.

Mr Toure first came to power in 1991, overthrowing military ruler Moussa Traore after his security forces killed over 100 pro-democracy demonstrators.

He gained widespread respect, and the nickname "soldier of democracy", for handing power to elected civilians the next year.

Born in 1948, Mr Toure is also known popularly by his initials "ATT". He has no official party but went into the first round of the elections with the backing of numerous support groups and 22 minor parties.

 

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Mali's Space Infrastructure

Mali has no history of being part of any organization dealing with space, nor has any launch capability.

 Mali lacks the industrial base, the educational base and the political foundation for a process like this to occur within it. It has no functioning university with an astrophysics or astronautics program, and nonexistant industry, despite the existence of the University of Bamako.

  Mali operates no satellites and, not having a presence, has no space power.

 The government of Mali in Bamako has no plans for attempting to further any ambition in space development or research.

 

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WEAPONS AND POWER

 

 

 

 None

 

 

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Timeline of Events in Mali

...From the Past to the Future

 

11th century - Empire of Mali becomes dominant force in the upper Niger basin, its period of greatness beginning under King Sundiata in 1235 and peaking under Mansa Musa who ruled between 1312 and 1337 and extended empire to the Atlantic.

Bamako: Drought prompted 1960s population influx

14th-15th centuries - Decline of the Empire of Mali, which loses dominance of the gold trade to the Songhai Empire, which makes its base in Timbuktu - historically important as a focal point of Islamic culture and a trading post on the trans-Saharan caravan route.

Late 16th century - Moroccans defeat the Songhai, make Timbuktu their capital and rule until their decline in the 18th century.

19th century - French colonial advance, and Islamic religious wars which lead to creation of theocratic states.

1898 - France completes conquest of Mali, then called French Sudan.

1959 - Mali and Senegal form the Mali Federation, which splits a year later.

Independence

1960 - Mali becomes independent with Modibo Keita as president. It becomes a one-party, socialist state and withdraws from the Franc zone.

1968 - Keita ousted in coup led by Lieutenant Moussa Traore.

1977 - Protests erupt following Keita's death in prison.

Moussa Traore: Military ruler's death sentence was commuted

1979 - New constitution provides for elections; Traore re-elected president.

1985 - Mali and Burkina Faso engage in border fighting.

1991 - Traore deposed in coup and replaced by transitional committee.

1992 - Alpha Konare wins multiparty elections to become Mali's first democratically-elected president.

1995 - Peace agreement with Tuareg tribes leads to return of thousands of refugees.

1999 - Former President Moussa Traore sentenced to death on corruption charges, but has his sentence commuted to life imprisonment by President Konare.

1999 October - Several people killed in fighting in the north between members of the Kunta tribe and an Arab community over local disputes.

2000 February - Konare appoints former International Monetary Fund official Mande Sidibe prime minister.

Mali has produced some of the superstars of African music

2001 December - Manantali dam in southwest produces its first megawatt of hydro-electricity, 13 years after it was completed.

2002 April - Amadou Toumani Toure elected president by landslide. Poll is marred by allegations of fraud.

2002 September - France says it will cancel 40% of debts owed to it by Mali, amounting to some 80m euros ($79m, 51m).

2002 October - Government resigns, without public explanation. New "government of national unity" is unveiled.

2003 August - Clashes between rival Muslim groups in west kill at least 10 people.

Fourteen Europeans, kidnapped in Algeria in 2003, are freed in Mali after negotiations with militant captors.

2004 April - Prime Minister Mohamed Ag Amani resigns and is replaced by Ousmane Issoufi Maiga.

2004 September - Agriculture minister says severe locust plague has cut cereal harvest by up to 45%.

2005 June - World Food Programme warns of severe food shortages, the result of drought and locust infestations in 2004.

2006 May - Visiting French Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy faces a hostile reception from protesters accusing him of racism over the tough immigration bill he introduced in parliament.

2006 June - The government signs an Algerian-brokered peace deal with Tuareg rebels seeking greater autonomy for their northern desert region. The rebels looted weapons in the town of Kidal in May, raising fears of a new rebellion.

 

TODAY AND INTO THE FUTURE

 

 

Nothing Planned

 

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